Hintergrundbild mit Feldern


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Lipowsky, A., Roscher, C., Schumacher, J. & Schmid, B. (2012). Density-Independent Mortality and Increasing Plant Diversity Are Associated with Differentiation of Taraxacum officinale into r- and K-Strategists. PLoS ONE, 7, e28121.

Loranger, J., Meyer, S. T., Shipley, B., Kattge, J., Loranger, H., Roscher, C. et al. (2012). Predicting invertebrate herbivory from plant traits: evidence from 51 grassland species in experimental monocultures. Ecology, 93, 2674-2682.

Roscher, C., Schumacher, J., Gubsch, M., Lipowsky, A., Weigelt, A., Buchmann, N. et al. (2012). Using Plant Functional Traits to Explain Diversity - Productivity Relationships. PLoS ONE, 7, e36760.

Rosenkranz, S., Wilcke, W., Eisenhauer, N. & Oelmann, Y. (2012). Net ammonification as influenced by plant diversity in experimental grassland. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 48, 78-87.

Rzanny, M. & Voigt, W. (2012). Complexity of multitrophic interactions in a grassland ecosystem depends on plant species diversity. Journal of Animal Ecology, 81, 614-627.

Sabais, A.C.W., Eisenhauer, N., König, S., Renker, C., Buscot, F. & Scheu, S. (2012). Soil organisms shape the competition between grassland plant species. Oecologia, 170, 1021-1032.

Vogel, A., Scherer-Lorenzen, M. & Weigelt, A. (2012). Grassland Resistance and Resilience after Drought Depends on Management Intensity and Species Richness. PLoS ONE, 7, e36992.

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Allan, E., Weisser, W., Weigelt, A., Roscher, C., Fischer, M. & Hillebrand, H. (2011). More diverse plant communities have higher functioning over time due to turnover in complementary dominant species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 17034-17039.

Blüthgen, N. & Klein, A.-M. (2011). Functional complementarity and specialisation: The role of biodiversity in plant-pollinator interactions. Basic and Applied Ecology, 12, 282-291.

Butenschoen, O., Scheu, S. & Eisenhauer, N. (2011). Interactive effects of warming, soil humidity and plant diversity on litter decomposition and microbial activity. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 43, 1902-1907.

Connolly, J., Cadotte, M.W., Brophy, C., Dooley, A., Finn, J., Kirwan, L. et al. (2011). Phylogenetically diverse grasslands are associated with pairwise interspecific processes that increase biomass. Ecology, 92, 1385-1392.

Ebeling, A.,Klein, A.M. & Tscharntke, T. (2011). Plant-flower visitor interaction webs: Temporal stability and pollinator specialization increases along an experimental plant diversity gradient. Basic and Applied Ecology, 12, 300-309.

Eisenhauer, N., Migunova, V.D., Ackermann, M., Ruess, L. & Scheu S. (2011a). Changes in Plant Species Richness Induce Functional Shifts in Soil Nematode Communities in Experimental Grassland. PLoS ONE, 6, e24087.

Eisenhauer, N., Milcu, A., Allan, E., Nitschke, N., Scherber, C., Temperton, V. et al. (2011b). Impact of above- and below-ground invertebrates on temporal and spatial stability of grassland of different diversity. Journal of Ecology, 99, 572-582.

Eisenhauer, N., Milcu, A., Sabais, A.C.W., Beßler, H., Brenner, J., Engels, C. et al. (2011c). Plant Diversity Surpasses Plant Functional Groups and Plant Productivity as Driver of Soil Biota in the Long Term. PLoS ONE, 6, e16055.

Eisenhauer, N., Sabais, A.C.W. & Scheu S. (2011d). Collembola species composition and diversity effects on ecosystem functioning vary with plant functional group identity. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 43, 1697-1704.

Eisenhauer, N. & Schädler, M. (2011). Inconsistent impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions. Oecologia, 165, 403-415.

Gubsch, M., Buchmann, N., Schmid, B., Schulze, E.D., Lipowsky, A. & Roscher, C. (2011a). Differential effects of plant diversity on functional trait variation of grass species. Annals of Botany, 107, 157-169.

Gubsch, M., Roscher, C., Gleixner, G., Habekost, M., Lipowsky, A., Schmid, B. et al. (2011b). Foliar and soil d15N values reveal increased nitrogen partitioning among species in diverse grassland communities. Plant, Cell and Environment, 34, 895-908.

Hector, A., Bell, T., Hautier, Y., Isbell, F., Kéry, M., Reich, P.B. et al. (2011). BUGS in the Analysis of Biodiversity Experiments: Species Richness and Composition Are of Similar Importance for Grassland Productivity. PLoS ONE, 6, e17434.

Isbell, F., Calcagno, V., Hector, A., Connolly, J., Harpole, W.S., Reich, P.B. et al. (2011). High plant diversity is needed tomaintain ecosystem services. Nature, 477, 199-202.

Klein, A.-M. (2011). Plant-pollinator interactions in changing environments. Basic and Applied Ecology, 12, 279-281.

Lipowsky, A., Schmid, B. & Roscher, C. (2011). Selection for monoculture and mixture genotypes in a biodiversity experiment. Basic and Applied Ecology, 12, 360-371.

Mraja, A., Unsicker, S.B., Reichelt, M., Gershenzon, J. & Roscher, C. (2011). Plant Community Diversity Influences Allocation to Direct Chemical Defence in Plantago lanceolata. PLoS ONE, 6, e28055.

Nestmann, S., Rajicic, T.S., Dehmer, K.J., Fischer, M., Schumacher, J. & Roscher C. (2011).
Plant species diversity and composition of experimental grasslands affect genetic differentiation of Lolium perenne populations. Molecular Ecology, 20, 2188-2203.

Oelmann, Y., Buchmann, N., Gleixner, G., Habekost, M., Roscher, C., Rosenkranz, S. et al. (2011a). Plant diversity effects on aboveground and belowground N pools in temperate grassland ecosystems: Development in the first 5 years after establishment. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 25, GB2014.

Oelmann, Y., Richter, A.K., Roscher, C., Rosenkranz, S., Temperton, V.M., Weisser, W.W. et al. (2011b). Does plant diversity influence phosphorus cycling in experimental grasslands? Geoderma, 167/168, 178-187.

Roscher, C., Kutsch, W.L., Kolle, O., Ziegler, W. & Schulze E.-D. (2011a). Adjustment to the light environment in small-statured forbs as a strategy for complementary resource use in mixtures of grassland species. Annals of Botany, 107, 965-979.

Roscher, C., Kutsch, W.L. & Schulze, E.-D. (2011b). Light and nitrogen competition limit Lolium perenne in experimental grasslands of increasing plant diversity. Plant Biology, 13, 134-144.

Roscher, C., Scherer-Lorenzen, M., Schumacher, J., Temperton, V.M., Buchmann, N. & Schulze, E.D. (2011c). Plant resource-use characteristics as predictors for species contribution to community biomass in experimental grasslands. Perspectives in Plant Ecology Evolution and Systematics, 13, 1-13.

Roscher, C., Schmid, B., Buchmann, N., Weigelt, A. & Schulze E.-D. (2011d). Legume species differ in the responses of their functional traits to plant diversity. Oecologia, 165, 437-452.

Roscher, C., Thein, S., Weigelt, A., Temperton, V.M., Buchmann, N. & Schulze, E.-D. (2011e). N2 fixation and performance of 12 legume species in a 6-year grassland biodiversity experiment. Plant Soil, 341, 333-348.

Roscher, C., Weigelt, A., Proulx, R., Marquard, E., Schumacher, J., Weisser, W.W. et al. (2011f). Identifying population- and community-level mechanisms of diversity-stability relationships in experimental grasslands. Journal of Ecology, 99, 1460-1469.

Sabais, A.C.W., Scheu, S. & Eisenhauer, N. (2011). Plant species richness drives the density and diversity of Collembola in temperate grassland. Acta Oecologica-International Journal of Ecology, 37, 195-202.

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Asshoff, R., Scheu, S. & Eisenhauer, N. (2010). Different earthworm ecological groups interactively impact seedling establishment. European Journal of Soil Biology, 46, 330-334.

Eisenhauer, N., Ackermann, M., Gass, S., Klier, M., Migunova, V., Nitschke, N. et al. (2010a). Nematicide impacts on nematodes and feedbacks on plant productivity in a plant diversity gradient. Acta Oecologica, 36, 477-483.

Eisenhauer, N., Beßler, H., Engels, C., Gleixner, G., Habekost, M., Milcu, A. et al. (2010b). Plant diversity effects on soil microorganisms support the singular hypothesis. Ecology, 91, 485-496.

Eisenhauer, N., Butenschoen, O. , Radsick, S. & Scheu, S. (2010c). Earthworms as seedling predators: Importance of seeds and seedlings for earthworm nutrition. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 42, 1245-1252.

Eisenhauer, N., Hörsch, V., Moeser, J. & Scheu, S. (2010d). Synergistic effects of microbial and animal decomposers on plant and herbivore performance. Basic and Applied Ecology, 11, 23-34.

Eisenhauer, N., Sabais, A.C.W., Schonert, F. & Scheu, S. (2010e). Soil arthropods beneficially rather than detrimentally impact plant performance in experimental grassland systems of different diversity. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 42, 1418-1424.

König, S., Wubet, T., Dorman, C.F., Hempel, S., Renker, C. & Buscot F. (2010). TaqMan Real-Time PCR Assays To Assess Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Responses to Field Manipulation of Grassland Biodiversity: Effects of Soil Characteristics, Plant Species Richness, and Functional Traits. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76, 3765-3775.

Milcu, A., Thebault, E., Scheu, S. & Eisenhauser, N. (2010). Plant diversity enhances the reliability of belowground processes. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 42, 2102-2110.

Nitschke, N., Ebeling, A., Rottstock, T., Scherber, C., Middelhoff, C., Creutzburg, S. et al. (2010). Time course of plant diversity effects on Centaurea jacea establishment and the role of competition and herbivory. Journal of Plant Ecology-Uk, 3, 109-121.

Petermann, J.S., Fergus, A.J.F. , Roscher, C., Turnbull, L.A., Weigelt, A. & Schmid, B. (2010a). Biology, chance or history? The predictable re-assembly of temperate grassland communities. Ecology, 91, 408-421.

Petermann, J.S., Müller, C.B, Roscher, C., Weigelt, A., Weisser, W.W. & Schmid, B. (2010b). Plant Species Loss Affects Life-History Traits of Aphids and Their Parasitoids. PLoS ONE, 5, e12053.

Petermann, J.S., Müller, C.B., Weigelt, A., Weisser, W.W. & Schmid, B. (2010c). Effect of plant species loss on aphid-parasitoid communities. Journal of Animal Ecology, 79, 709-720.

Proulx, R., Wirth, C., Voigt, W., Weigelt, A., Roscher, C., Attinger, S. et al. (2010). Diversity Promotes Temporal Stability across Levels of Ecosystem Organization in Experimental Grasslands. PLoS ONE 5, e13382.

Sauheitl, L., Glaser, B., Dippold, M., Leiber, K. & Weigelt, A. (2010). Amino acid fingerprint of a grassland soil reflects changes in plant species richness. Plant and Soil, 334, 353-363.

Scherber, C., Eisenhauer, N., Weisser, W.W., Schmid, B., Voigt, W. Fischer, M. et al. (2010a). Bottom-up effects of plant diversity on multitrophic interactions in a biodiversity experiment. Nature, 468, 553-556.

Scherber, C, Heimann, J., Köhler, G., Mitschunas, N. & Weisser W.W. (2010b). Functional identity versus species richness: herbivory resistance in plant communities. Oecologica, 163, 707-717.

Scherber, C., Mwangi, P.N., Schmitz, M., Scherer-Lorenzen, M., Beßler, H., Engels, C. et al. (2010c). Biodiversity and belowground interactions mediate community invasion resistance against a tall herb invader. Journal of Plant Ecology-Uk, 3, 99-108.

Scherling, C., Roscher, C., Giavalisco, P., Schulze, E.D. & Weckwerth, W. (2010). Metabolomics Unravel Contrasting Effects of Biodiversity on the Performance of Individual Plant Species. PLoS ONE, 5, e12569.

Schmidtke, A., Rottstock, T., Gaedke, U. & Fischer, M. (2010). Plant community diversity and composition affect individual plant performance. Oecologia, 164, 665-677.

Weigelt, A., Marquard, E., Temperton, V.M., Roscher, C., Scherber, C., Mwangi, P. et al. (2010). The Jena-Experiment: six years of data from a grassland biodiversity experiment. Ecology, 91, 930-931.

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Bessler, H., Temperton, V.M., Roscher, C., Buchmann, N., Schmid, B., Schulze, E.-D. et al. (2009). Aboveground overyielding in grassland mixtures is associated with reduced biomass partitioning to belowground organs. Ecology, 90, 1520-1530.

Eisenhauer, N., Klier, M., Partsch, S., Sabais, A.C.W., Scherber, C., Weisser, W.W. et al. (2009a). No interactive effects of pesticides and plant diversity on soil microbial biomass and respiration. Applied Soil Ecology, 42, 31-36.

Eisenhauer, N., König, S., Sabais, A.C.W., Renker, C., Buscot, F. & Scheu S. (2009b). Impacts of earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus intraradices) on plant performance are not interrelated. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 41, 561-567.

Eisenhauer, N., Milcu, A., Nitschke, N., Sabais, A.C.W., Scherber C. & Scheu S. (2009c). Earthworm and belowground competition effects on plant productivity in a plant diversity gradient. Oecologia, 161, 291-301.

Eisenhauer, N., Milcu, A, Sabais, C.W., Bessler, H., Weigelt, A., Engels, C. et al. (2009d). Plant community impacts on the structure of earthworm communities depend on season and change with time. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 41, 561-567.

Eisenhauer, N., Milcu, A., Sabais, A.C.W. & Scheu, S. (2009e). Earthworms enhance plant regrowth in a grassland plant diversity gradient. European Journal of Soil Biology, 45, 455-458.

Eisenhauer, N., Schuy, M., Butenschoen, O. & Scheu S. (2009f). Direct and indirect effects of endogeic earthworms on plant seeds. Pedobiologia, 52, 151-162.

Marquard, E., Weigelt, A., Roscher, C., Gubsch, M., Lipowski, A. & Schmid, B. (2009a). Positive biodiversity-productivity relationship due to increased plant density. Journal of Ecology, 97, 696-704.

Marquard, E., Weigelt, A., Temperton, V.M., Roscher, C., Schumacher, J., Buchmann, N. et al. (2009b). Plant species richness and functional composition drive overyielding in a 6-year grassland experiment. Ecology, 90, 3290-3302.

Roscher, C., Beßler, H., Oelmann, Y., Engels, C., Wilcke, W. & Schulze, E.D. (2009a). Resources, recruitment limitation and invader species identity determine pattern of spontaneous invasion in experimental grasslands. Journal of Ecology, 97, 32-47.

Roscher, C., Schmid, B. & Schulze E.D. (2009b). Non-random recruitment of invader species in experimental grasslands. Oikos, 118, 1524-1540.

Roscher, C., Temperton, V.M., Buchmann, N. & Schulze E.D. (2009c). Community assembly and biomass production in regularly and never weeded experimental grasslands. Acta Oecologica, 35, 206-217.

Sauheitl, L., Glaser, B. & Weigelt, A. (2009a). Advantages of compound-specific stable isotope measurements over bulk measurements in studies on plant uptake of intact amino acids. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 23, 3333-3342.

Sauheitl, L., Glaser, B. & Weigelt A. (2009b) Uptake of intact amino acids by plants depends on soil amino acid concentrations. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 66, 145-152.

Schumacher, J. & Roscher, C. (2009). Differential effects of functional traits on aboveground biomass in semi-natural grasslands. Oikos, 118, 1659-1668.

Weigelt, A., Weisser, W.W., Buchmann, N. & Scherer-Lorenzen, M. (2009). Biodiversity for multifunctional grasslands: equal productivity in high-diversity low-input and low-diversity high-input systems. Biogeosciences, 6, 1695-1706.

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Daßler, A., Roscher, C., Temperton, V.M., Schumacher, J. & Schulze, E.D. (2008). Adaptive survival mechanisms and growth limitations of small-stature herb species across a plant diversity gradient. Plant Biology, 10, 573-587.

Ebeling A., Klein, A.-M., Schumacher, J., Weisser, W.W. & Tscharntke, T. (2008). How does plant richness affect pollinator richness and temporal stability of flower visits? Oikos, 117, 1808-1815.

Eisenhauer, N., Marhan, S. & Scheu, S. (2008a). Assessment of anecic behavior in selected earthworm species: Effects on wheat seed burial, seedling establishment, wheat growth and litter incorporation. Applied Soil Ecology, 38, 79-82.

Eisenhauer, N., Milcu, A., Sabais, A.C.W. & Scheu, S. (2008b). Animal ecosystem engineers modulate the diversity-invasibility relationship. PLoS ONE, 3, e3489.

Eisenhauer, N. & Scheu, S. (2008a). Earthworms as drivers of the competition between grasses and legumes. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 40, 2650-2659.

Eisenhauer, N. & Scheu, S. (2008b). Invasibility of experimental grassland communities: the role of earthworms, plant functional group identity and seed size. Oikos, 117, 1026-1036.

Eisenhauer, N., Straube, D. & Scheu, S. (2008c). Efficiency of two widespread non-destructive extraction methods under dry soil conditions for different ecological earthworm groups. European Journal of Soil Biology, 44, 141-145.

Fischer, M., Rottstock, T., Marquard, E., Middelhoff, C., Roscher, C., Temperton, V.M. et al. (2008). The Jena trial demonstrates the benefits of floristic diversity to pastures. Fourrages, 195, 275-286.

Habekost, M., Eisenhauer, N., Scheu, S., Steinbeiss, S., Weigelt, A. & Gleixner, G. (2008) Seasonal changes in the soil microbial community in a grassland plant diversity gradient four years after establishment. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 40, 2588-2595.

Lorentzen, S., Roscher, C., Schumacher, J., Schulze, E.D. & Schmid, B. (2008). Species richness and identity affect the use of aboveground space in experimental grasslands. Perspectives in Plant Ecology Evolution and Systematics, 10, 73-87.

Milcu, A., Partsch, S., Scherber, C., Weisser, W.W. & Scheu S. (2008). Earthworms and legumes control litter decomposition in a plant diversity gradient. Ecology, 89, 1872-1882.

Roscher, C., Schumacher, J., Weisser, W.W. & Schulze, E.-D. (2008a). Genetic identity affects performance of species in grasslands of different plant diversity: An experiment with Lolium perenne cultivars. Annals of Botany, 102, 113-125.

Roscher, C., Thein, S., Schmid, B. & Scherer-Lorenzen, M. (2008b). Complementary nitrogen use among potentially dominant species in a biodiversity experiment varies between two years. Journal of Ecology, 96, 477-488.

Schmid, B., Hector, A., Saha, P. & Loreau, M. (2008). Biodiversity effects and transgressive overyielding. Journal of Plant Ecology, 1, 95-102.

Specht, J., Scherber, C., Unsicker, S.B., Köhler, G. & Weisser, W.W. (2008). Diversity and beyond: plant functional identity determines herbivore performance. Journal of Animal Ecology, 77, 1047 - 1055.

Steinbeiss, S., Beßler, H., Engels, C., Temperton, V.M., Buchmann, N., Roscher, C. et al. (2008a). Plant diversity positively affects short-term soil carbon storage in experimental grasslands. Global Change Biology, 14, 2937-2949.

Steinbeiss, S., Temperton, V.M. & Gleixner G. (2008b). Mechanisms of short-term soil carbon storage in experimental grasslands. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 40, 2634-2642.

Thein, S., Roscher, C. & Schulze, E.D. (2008). Effects of trait plasticity on aboveground biomass production depend on species identity in experimental grasslands. Basic and Applied Ecology, 9, 475-484.

Weigelt, A., Schumacher, J., Roscher, C. & Schmid B. (2008). Does biodiversity increase spatial stability in plant community biomass? Ecology Letters, 11, 338-347.

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Chung, H., Zak, D.R., Reich, P.B. & Ellsworth, D.S. (2007). Plant species richness, elevated CO2, and atmospheric nitrogen deposition alter soil microbial community composition and function. Global Change Biology, 13, 980-989.

Heisse K., Roscher C., Schumacher J. & Schulze E.D. (2007). Establishment of grassland species in monocultures: Different strategies lead to success. Oecologia, 152, 435-447. 

Mwangi P.N., Schmitz M., Scherber C., Scherer-Lorenzen M., Roscher C., Schumacher J., Weisser W.W. & Schmid B. (2007). Niche pre-emption increases with species richness in plant communities. Journal of Ecology, 95, 65-78. 

Oelmann, Y., Kreutziger, Y., Bol, R. & Wilcke, W. (2007a). Nitrate leaching in soil: Tracing the NO3- sources with the help of stable N and O isotopes. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 39, 3024-3033.

Oelmann, Y., Kreutziger, Y., Temperton, V.M., Buchmann, N., Roscher, C., Schumacher, J. et al. (2007b). Nitrogen and phosphorus budgets in experimental grasslands of variable diversity. Journal of Environmental Quality, 36, 396-407.

Oelmann, Y., Wilcke, W., Temperton, V.M., Buchmann, N., Roscher, C., Schumacher, J. et al. (2007c). Soil and plant nitrogen pools as related to plant diversity in an experimental grassland. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 71, 720-729.

Roscher, C., Schumacher, J., Foitzik, O. & Schulze, E.-D. (2007a). Resistance to rust fungi in Lolium perenne depends on within-species variation and performance of the host species in grasslands of different plant diversity. Oecologia, 153, 173-183.

Roscher R., Schumacher J., Weisser W.W., Schmid B. & Schulze E.-D. (2007b). Detecting the role of individual species for overyielding in experimental grassland communities composed of potentially dominant species. Oecologia, 154, 535-549.

Temperton, V.M., Mwangi, P.N., Scherer-Lorenzen, M., Schmid, B. & Buchmann, N. (2007). Positive interactions between nitrogen-fixing legumes and four different neighbouring species in a biodiversity experiment. Oecologia, 151, 190-205.

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Milcu, A., Partsch, S., Langel, R. & Scheu, S. (2006a). The response of decomposers (earthworms, springtails and microorganisms) to variations in species and functional group diversity of plants. Oikos, 112, 513-524.

Milcu, A., Schumacher, J. & Scheu, S. (2006b). Earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) affect plant seedling recruitment and microhabitat heterogeneity. Functional Ecology, 20, 261-268.

Partsch S., Milcu A. & Scheu S. (2006). Decomposers (lumbricidae, collembola) affect plant performance in model grasslands of different diversity. Ecology, 87, 2548-2558.

Renker C., Weißhuhn K., Kellner H. & Buscot F. (2006). Rationalizing molecular analysis of field-collected roots for assessing diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: to pool, or not to pool, that is the question. Mycorrhiza, 16, 535-531.

Scherber C.D., Milcu A., Partsch S., Scheu S. & Weisser, W.W. (2006a). The effects of plant diversity and insect herbivory on Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae) in experimental grassland. Journal of Ecology, 94, 922-931.

Scherber, C., Mwangi, P.N., Temperton, V.M., Roscher, C., Schumacher, J., Schmid, B. et al. (2006b). Effects of plant diversity on invertebrate herbivory in experimental grassland. Oecologia, 147, 489-500.

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Oelmann, Y., Wilcke, W. & Bol, R. (2005). Nitrogen-15 in NO3- characterises differently reactive soil organic N pools. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 19, 3177-3181.

Roscher, C., Temperton, V.M., Scherer-Lorenzen, M., Schmitz, M., Schumacher, J., Schmid, B. et al. (2005). Overyielding in experimental grassland communities - irrespective of species pool or spatial scale. Ecology Letters, 8, 419-429.

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Roscher, C., Schumacher, J., Baade, J., Wilcke, W., Gleixner, G., Weisser, W.W. et al. (2004). The role of biodiversity for element cycling and trophic interactions: an experimental approach in a grassland community. Basic and Applied Ecology, 5, 107-121.